Category Archives: IAS2011ROME

The 6th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Rome.

TB preventive therapy reduces death, disease among HIV positive patients

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Results from a new study in Brazil show that not only is tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment safe and effective, but it also shows significant benefits at the community level.

Announced at the 2011 International AIDS Conference in Rome, the THRio (TB and HIV in Rio) study investigators implemented clinical staff training on the importance of preventing TB in people living with HIV, and teaching doctors and nurses how to perform testing for TB infection. Scientists at Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Secretariat in Brazil and the John Hopkins University studied these interventions in 29 clinics in Rio de Janeiro, including almost 13,000 HIV-positive patients, to determine the impact of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) on rates of TB and death in that population.

The intervention had a modest impact (13 percent reduction) on TB, but showed an important and statistically significant impact on TB and death that might be attributed to TB (28 percent reduction)…

Male circumcision curbs spread of HIV over time, risky behavior does not increase

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Three years after the voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) campaign rolled out in the Orange Farm Township in South Africa, the first “real world” results are available showing a marked reduction of HIV acquisition among circumcised adult men and a drop in HIV incidence among men in the community of 76 percent, and prevalence among circumcised men 55 percent lower.

Earlier randomized controlled studies have show medical male circumcision to reduce the risk of men acquiring HIV through vaginal sex by up to 60 percent…

Hormonal contraceptive use linked to increased HIV transmission

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Hormonal contraceptive use associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition and increased risk of transmission from HIV-infected women to male partners

An oral abstract presentation by Heffron on behalf of the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Team contributed to mounting evidence that hormonal contraceptive use is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition by women. The study of HIV discordant couples compared couples using hormonal contraception with those who were not. Most hormonal contraceptives being used were injectable.

This study also offered the first evidence that hormonal contraceptive use by HIV-infected women may increase the risk of HIV transmission to their male sexual partners…

Maternal and child mortality through the lens of HIV infection

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“[It is a basic] human right for every woman to survive pregnancy and childbirth and for their child to survive to reach their 5th birthday,” said Dr. Philippa Musoke, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist from Uganda, at the Wednesday plenary session of the 2011 International AIDS Conference in Rome. Her presentation outlined progress and challenges in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) related to reducing maternal and child mortality.

Most maternal and child deaths are associated with infectious diseases and the majority of them are preventable, she said, and sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia bear the brunt of these deaths…

IAS launches media center for drug substitution therapy

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The International AIDS Society (IAS) will launch a virtual media center for opioid substitution therapy (OST) support in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the organization announced Tuesday at the 2011 International AIDS Conference in Rome.

There are an estimated 16 million injection drug users (IDU) in the world, 3 million of which are HIV infected, said Dr. Chris Beyrer…

Combination prevention for injection drug users

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Don DesJarlais, PhD, from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York opened the session on combination prevention for injection drug users (IDUs) by identifying syringe exchange programs (SEPs) as the “foundation for combination HIV prevention” in this population. To an audience Tuesday afternoon at the International AIDS Conference in Rome, he pointed out that risk elimination is not necessary because sharing syringes is still inefficient for HIV transmission. You do, however, need to reach a majority of IDUs in the population to have a real and measurable impact on HIV incidence…

Real world challenges to deploying effective HIV prevention and treatment

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There was some consensus among the Tuesday opening plenary speakers at the 2011 International AIDS Conference in Rome – there are many challenges to effective HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) deployment.

Dr. Peter Piot, of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, discussed the AIDS response and the need for a long-term view. In terms of the exciting prevention science released in the recent months, “If we had had these tools ten years or even five years ago when AIDS budgets were expanding and AIDS leadership was at an all time high, I think we would see far less AIDS deaths and far fewer people living with AIDS than we see today.”…

IAS 2011: Where we go from here

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Dr. Anthony Fauci speaks out on treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis and the way forward

More details were fleshed out on several compelling studies finding antiretroviral treatment is effective in preventing HIV infection – two pre-exposure prophylaxis studies as well as a large study (HPTN 052) looking at treatment of HIV infected persons in stable discordant partnerships that showed significant protection for the uninfected partner.

Science Speaks addressed these new studies and other topics Monday evening with Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Anthony Fauci at the 2011 International AIDS Society meeting in Rome.