By Daniel R. Lucey M.D., MPH, FIDSA
The World Health Organization updated its website Sept. 9 on COVID-19 vaccine candidates with a line listing of 180 different candidates including 35 in clinical trials and 145 still in pre-clinical stage.
Of the 35 vaccine candidates in clinical trials (Phase 1, 2 and/or 3), WHO has listed nine with links to their Phase 3 protocols. These nine Phase 3 vaccine protocols are listed with study sites involving countries in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, and Africa. Some of these vaccine candidate Phase 3 trials currently involve one nation (e.g., USA, Russia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Brazil, UAE), while other Phase 3 protocols are multinational.
This useful Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines includes separate columns for:
Vaccine developer/manufacturer, Vaccine platform, Type of vaccine and Number of doses
The nine candidate vaccines and (vaccine platforms), in the order listed on this WHO website are:
- University of Oxford/AstraZeneca: (Non-Replicating Viral Vector)
- CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology: (Non-Replicating Viral Vector)
- Gamaleya Research Institute: (Non-Replicating Viral Vector)
- Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies: (Non-Replicating Viral Vector), but ”not yet recruiting”
- Sinovac: (Inactivated)
- Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm: (Inactivated)
- Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm: (Inactivated)
- Moderna/NIAID: (RNA)
- BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer: (RNA)
Although one of these Phase 3 vaccine candidates (University of Oxford/AstraZeneca) has been on hold (no vaccinations being given) over the past three days since Sept. 8 due to a neurological adverse event in one volunteer in the UK that is under investigation to determine whether or not it was causally related to the vaccine, multiple other Phase 3 studies are ongoing.
Daniel Lucey, M.D. MPH, FIDSA, FACP, is an infectious diseases physician and adjunct professor of infectious diseases at Georgetown University Medical Center, a senior scholar at the Georgetown University O’Neil Institute, Anthropology Research Associate, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Global Health Committee.He has served as a volunteer medical responder to outbreaks that included the West Africa Ebola crisis. He has collected information on outbreaks starting in 2001 with cases of anthrax in 2001, and including smallpox vaccination 2002, SARS 2003, H5N1 Flu 2004, MERS in 2013, and Ebola in April, 2014, He has gathered, and updated information on the spread of the coronavirus here since Jan. 6.